Khoa & Chhana|
One major milk product in common use is khoa, obtained by rapidly evaporating milk in shallow pans to a total solids of about 70 per cent and capable of being preserved as such for several days. It is used as an ingredient in making different kinds of traditional mithais such as peda, burfi and gulabjamun.
Yet another milk product of significance is chhana, a product of acid coagulation of hot milk and draining out of whey. It is used in preparing different kinds of sweets such as rasagollas. The value of khoa and chhana produced is probably twice the value of all milk handled by the organized sector in the country.
Ghee & Makkhan
Ghee, is the main dairy product because of its extended preservation. Makkhan and ghee contribute as much as one-third of the fat in the Indian diet. Ghee is produced mainly for consumption directly as food and as an ingredient of food preparations including sweets. Over the centuries, people have cultivated a liking for the aroma and flavor of ghee and prefer it over vegetable oils, the other traditional cooking medium.
Butter-milk is a by-product in the preparation of makkhan. It is estimated that about 55 kg of buttermilk is produced for every kg of ghee. While villagers and their families consume most of it, some quantity is either given away or fed to cattle. The reason for this is lack of any market for it in rural areas. Buttermilk is rich in milk protein and calcium, and forms a nutritive and refreshing beverage.
Ghee and makkhan are important sources of vitamins A, D, E and K. They also contain small amounts of essential fatty acids such as arachidonic and linoleic. Considerable losses of Vitamin A and carotene can occur during cooking, the latter being more rapid. Below 125°C, Vitamin A is fairly stable, but above this temperature it is rapidly destroyed.